ICBL (1999) Report by Human Rights Watch

Notes made by Russ Faure-Brac

This is an analysis of how the process used by the International Campaign to Ban Landmines can apply to other movements.

  1. General – They used expert studies, mass promotional material, lobbying of governments from below, and representation at conferences.
  1. Credibility – use of prominent military officers
  1. Speaking with one voice – subordinating differences
  1. Pressure and Persuasion
    1. Alter politicians views of costs and benefits
    2. Transforming mines into a humanitarian issue (“Humanitarian Politics”)
    3. Innovative use of visual media and use of print media
  1. 5.     Division of labor – use comparative advantages of the various organizations involved
  1. 6.     Building from Below – disaggregate the process through regional meetings for greater access by non-state actors
  1. 7.     State as Partner
    1. a.     Build partnerships between humanitarian advocates and sympathetic states (get US on board, then bring in other countries or start with important sympathetic countries?)
    2. b.     Get consent from states that held, sold and deployed land mines (Canada and Norway lobbied those states not on board)
    3. c.     Form broad NGO coalitions with narrower steering groups supplemented by significant input from the UN and support from the International Committee of the Red Cross
    4. d.     Anticipate circumstances completely outside the control of the campaign (prepare for what to do when collapse occurs)


  1. 8.     Stringent standards with widespread but not necessarily universal support


  1. 9.     Political coalition building among NGOs, states and international organizations


  1. 10.  Negotiating environments that allow voting rather than consensus decision making, access for NGOs, and the selection of a supportive chairperson


  1. 11.  NGOs – The campaign emerged out of the nascent campaigns of NGO’s from several different countries. A Steering Committee of the original six organizations was formed.


  1. 12.  UN – The Department of Humanitarian Affairs was designated as the UN focal point.


  1. 13.  US State Department – issued an influential report and first raised the subject within the UN General Assembly, which then scheduled four expert group meetings on the subject.


  1. 14.  Influence on US President – An open letter was sent to the President sponsored by the Vietnam Veterans of America Foundation (VVAF) and signed by 15 retired military personnel and published in the NY Times.


  1. 15.  Treaty Ideas Their specific goal was the signing of a treaty. What is our specific goal?


  1. 16.  The Ottawa Process – They invited countries to come to a conference but made them sign a draft final declaration. Those who wouldn’t sign could come as observers. The process was defined by three characteristics:


  • A close partnership between states and NGOs
  • A like-minded coalition comprising a core group of small and medium-sized states and
  • A set of negotiations undertaken outside normal multilateral channels.


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